First listen and then answer the following question.
How does the writer describe sport at the international level?
I am always amazed
when I hear people saying
that sport creates goodwill between the nations,
and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket,
they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield.
Even if one didn't know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance)
that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred,
one could deduce if from general principles.
Nearly all the sports practised nowadays are competitive.
You play to win,
and the game has little meaning
unless you do your utmost to win.
On the village green,
where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved,
it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise:
but as soon as a the question of prestige arises,
as soon as you feel
that you and some larger unit will be disgraced
if you lose,
the most savage combative instincts are aroused.
who has played even in a school football match
At the international level,
sport is frankly mimic warfare.
But the significant thing is not the behaviour of the players
but the attitude of the spectators;
and, behind the spectators,
of the nations
who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests,
and seriously believe -- at any rate for short periods --
that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.
GEORGE ORWELL The sporting spirit
New words and expression
goodwill n. 友好
cricket n. 板球
inclination n. 意愿
contest n. 比赛
orgy n. 无节制的，放荡
deduce v. 推断
competitive adj. 竞争性的
patriotism n. 地方观念，爱国主义
prestige [pre'stiː(d)ʒ] n. 威望，声望；声誉
disgrace v. 使丢脸
savage adj. 野性的
combative adj. 好斗的
mimic warfare 模拟战争
behaviour n. 行动，举止
absurd adj. 荒唐的
at any rate 无论如何，至少
现在开展的体育运动几乎都是竞争性的。参加比赛就是为了取胜。如果不拚命去赢，比赛就没有什么意义了。 在乡间的草坪上，当你随意组成两个队，并且不涉及任何地方情绪时，那才可能是单纯的为了娱乐和锻炼而进行比赛。可是一量涉及到荣誉问题，一旦你想到你和某一团体会因为你输而丢脸时，那么最野蛮的争斗天性便会激发起来。即使是仅仅参加过学校足球赛的人也有种体会。在国际比赛中，体育简直是一场模拟战争。但是，要紧的还不是运动员的行为，而是观众的态度，以及观众身后各个国家的态度。面对着这些荒唐的比赛，参赛的各个国家会如痴如狂，甚至煞有介事地相信 -- 至少在短期内如此 -- 跑跑、跳跳、踢踢球是对一个民族品德素质的检验。